Thursday, September 15, 2016
When I was growing up Halloween was a night of wonder and magic. For one thing,we kids were allowed to go around the neighborhood collecting treats without an adult if someone's older brother or sister was along.We felt special and the night had a slightly dangerous edge to it; the danger was all in our imaginations-at least that's how it used to be. No one dressed up like a serial killer, or politician, and if we managed to score a Collegeville costume of a nurse, police officer or G.I Joe, well...let's just say we ruled in the cool department.
Somewhere along the mid 70s things began to change. Costumes with the hard plastic mask disappeared and the characters got bloody: gore became a thing. Decorations changed, too with the introduction of vinyl severed body parts and plastic window clings. The inexpensive paper euphemial hang-up skeletons disappeared in favor of more realistic-and expensive-fare.
My childhood Halloween included homemade cookies, slices of cake, and mini cups of cider. A candy apple or popcorn ball was a major score. Much of the candy and gum we got was loose and some of it wasn't even wrapped. We went inside people's houses to see their decorations and if our parents were along, they chatted amicably with neighbors. It was all pretty much over in and hour or so and then everyone in the neighborhood went to the firehouse for a community Halloween party. Afterward we went home, emptied our loot bags and went to bed because more than likely it was a school night even if it were Halloween.We were home snug in bed before the Witching Hour. No one was afraid of getting tainted candy or poisoned apples. There were no weird clowns lurking by the roadside or other nefarious characters up to no good. It was all good, clean fun-there were no extremist Christians bellowing about it being Satan's Day and no one got possessed by evil spirits just for dressing up and collecting candy on a day made for innocent fun and frolic.
Because I am now a practicing witch (and don't just dress up like one as I did as a kid), I celebrate Samhain as well as the half octave of days made up as Mischief Night, All Hallows, All Saints and All Souls, this time of year has a new and deeper meaning. Samhain, as Summer's end, is the final harvest of Autumn and the time when the Veil is fully open between this world and the Afterlife. I welcome my beloved friends and relatives who have made their transition at my home Dumb Supper and by meditating to bring them closer. I decorate my ancestor altar with as many photos of them as possible and a few of the things that hold their memory dear to me. This includes photos of the many pets I've had throughout my life and my much loved familiar Tinker. I write regrets from the previous year and burn them, then bury the ashes. I make a batch of Samhain oil to use for spirit communication in the year that lies ahead, and a special incense blend to use over the next few days because I also celebrate astrological Samhain on November 7th (which just happens to be my late grandparent's wedding anniversary,too). Every year is different because I always find something else to add to the ritual. At the end of the night, after I have cast a protective circle, I sit in silence and listen for the voices of my ancestor's and the Mighty Dead. I ask to communicate with them in my dreams,too, or if I can stay awake until morning, I bid those who have crossed over for a visit farewell and godspeed.
While the two holidays are intertwined and difficult to separate, each has its own distinctive character. I love them both!
Wednesday, September 14, 2016
Having said that, I draw a line just short of Gavin and Yvonne Frost and their version of Wicca, which includes ritual sex with minors. If by chance you are unaware of the fact that sex with a minor is against the law, not only is a crime, it also has corruption of a minor as an accompanying charge in most cases, and a few others as well, depending on the jurisdiction. Not only do we not need this sort of thing in Paganism from a public relations standpoint,it's legally and ethically wrong.
Minors cannot give legal consent to have sex, period. There is no valid argument in favor of this sort of activity, despite adjurations that it's just ancient history. While historical accounts of sex with minors do indeed exist, and it was considered morally acceptable in that period, it is a part of the past which is socially unacceptable in our present time. No amount of backpedaling or psychobabble paints this activity as acceptable in modern Pagan culture. More of us should be speaking out about and against it.
I personally believe placing it in the context of ritual is deplorable and heinous as well. We cannot and should not condone or tolerate this, even in a culture of freethinking or in the name of religious belief.
I disagree with those who think that Paganism means "Anything goes". There are ethical boundaries in every culture and religion. I think we should stand for something and not fall for anything that comes along without discernment. "Live and let live" stops here. Reprehensible behavior of any kind should not be tolerated in our community because what we allow defines who we are.
Gavin Frost made his transition recently, and while I wish him well in the next life, I think he may have a few things to explain about his beliefs to the God/ess of his understanding. I extend my sincere condolences to his loved ones...but I cannot and will not condone his behavior and will not support those who continue the reprehensible abuse of children and teenagers.
For further reading, I suggest you read this spot on blog post by Shauna Aura Knight at Pagan Activist which pretty much says it all for me:https://paganactivist.com/2014/08/25/the-frosts-and-consent-culture/.
Monday, August 29, 2016
So you want to be a Witch. Well, that's just fine...But are you sure?
Because this isn't going to be easy. It's going to take a lot of study and practice. It's going to be a lot of trial and error and things are going to go slowly at the beginning, because you're going to have to establish a personal rapport with the Natural world. It takes time and effort. Things that work for others may not work for you, and I will guarantee that they will not work for you in the same way as they work for others...because we all have different energy. We all vibrate on an individually unique level. Establishing that relationship with the forces of Nature is crucial to your success in using magick. This isn't Charmed or Practical Magic where you throw a fireball at an opponent to disable them. It doesn't work that way; being a Witch doesn't employ Hollywood special effects.
One does not simply sit down one day and decide to be a Witch. Calling yourself a Witch, plopping a pointy hat on your head, donning a flowing cape and carrying a broom doesn't make you a Witch
(although those things are all fun outward signs of such). Reading one-or fifty- books on Witchcraft doesn't make you a Witch. Knowledge and use of those things unseen is what makes you a Witch.
That's why Witchcraft is called the Craft of the Wise. .You must acquire knowledge and skill, which only comes with practice and putting what you have learned to use in everyday life. There are no shortcuts; I've been a practitioner for nearly 45 years now, and I'm still learning because Witchcraft is an art and process. I didn't learn everything I know straight away, and in fact when I began I didn't even have a name for what I was doing. I certainly never dreamed that it was Witchcraft. And because I had no mentor back in those years, I never dreamed that the little things I was doing were actually spell casting or ritual. I did things intuitively, in a place that felt safe, secluded away from others, where I felt close to Nature, and where Nature returned my efforts with the gift of powers to perfect and use. I always felt different from others in that way: not special, just different. And my inherent feeling turned out to be true: I had the ability to use the energy and forces of Nature in ways that were beyond the mundane. Nothing spectacular and flashy, mind you...but they were there. My ability grew as I studied on my own and finally with a group of like minded individuals who had their own unique set of abilities.
Finding the power in the forces of the natural world requires concentration and attunement in order to become sensitive to the vibrations around you. Some of us are better than others at this, but I believe that all humans are born with their own level of sensitivity, and that the majority of us loose this as we age due to the outside influences of society and culture. It's much like childhood imagination which simply goes away in some individuals...and thrives in others.
Back to those books...A book, any book, is not ever the 'end-all' because books should be used for a reference. I have a few books I favor because I like the author's style of writing and the way they disseminate information, but none of those books or authors are the final word or authority on any one given subject on magick or Witchcraft. And while those authors can be considered as teachers when no other is available even one-on-one teachers are merely guides. The power begins with you and comes from inside; books and teachers are vessels that help release the power within. Books are the spark of imagination that make you think; but the power has been yours all along. That's why you should never become so attached to a book ( or author) in a way that limits your practice. Like using a map or GPS when driving, you use other things when making the journey: your eyes and intuition and what is around you. Maps are used for reference. Sometimes the GPS takes you off course. It's the same with books.
While I have a deep and abiding regard for tradition, I am not a student of the "stand here and do this" school of magick. You can do things your own way (within reason), and to be honest, none of the really good authors or actual teachers I have studied with have demanded rigid compliance to instruction. Nearly all of them allow 'wiggle room' for individuality, and in fact most encourage it. Doing things rigidly 'by the book is', in my humble opinion, only a poor imitation of what someone else has done. I believe that not only does the power lie within you, I believe that the energy comes from the essence of what you are doing. I am a firm believer in putting yourself into your work and personalizing it-re-write a spell to suit your intention, make substitutions, use tools you are comfortable with, dress comfortably. The knowledge of correspondences and herbs, etc., are all still necessary, but so is learning to use them in new and unique ways. The magick doesn't come from these things. The magick is you. ( There are many schools of thought on the subject of magick and this is only mine. You may like someone else's, or develop your own.) My own thoughts on the subject are if the information you are using has no real resonance with you, then it's essentially useless. Others believe differently. I think it goes back to that respect for tradition I spoke about earlier. For me, Witchcraft, like everything in our world, has evolved and changed over the years. What was useful back in an age when occult knowledge was hidden from the general population was like that for a reason which may still hold value, but our world is not the same, and we develop new understanding all the time.
In the beginning, Witches and cunning folk used what was available to them. They wrote their own words and conjured spells in a way that was personal and meaningful to themselves. The energies available to them came from the vibration and essence of those things. That's why their magick worked. That's how they used the Universal forces of Nature to their benefit. That's what made them who they were. And so can you!
Before I end this little pep talk, I do want to say something about negative elements. You may have heard about the Law of Return, that "whatever you put out come back to you three times". Phyllis Currot, a respected Wiccan High Priestess and author, charmingly calls it the "Boomerang Whammy Rule". It has to do more with the Hindu belief in karma than anything to do with magick. Nature is neither good nor evil. Dark and light need one another (Stars still shine in the daylight but are only seen at night). Universal energy is neither positive or negative but is receptive to the manner in which it is used. Why? Because through magick we experience immanent divinity. We literally touch God/dess and become one with the Divine and that gives us an experience of the interconnections of, well, everything. Even that nasty jackass down the street you'd like to turn into a toad. It changes your perspective. I'm not saying that witches never hex and curses are never laid-but they have their place and are used with caution because usually there is another way of handling the situation resulting in a beneficial outcome for all. No, it's not all sweetness and light, but it's too easy to get caught up by negative emotions which eat at you and will surely influence your practice in ways you'd probably regret. We don't not use negative energy because we're afraid of the repercussions, we learn ways of turning it around by finding something more effective that makes our work in tune with the holiness of the Sacred Divine. That's a lot for a beginner to think about, but everyone of us needs to do this at some point for our abilities to develop usefully.
And so...It's not about calling yourself a Witch...It's about what you want to do with the inherent birthright that is the use of personal power and the elevation of your unique vibration. Do you want to go about like the characterization of a fictional Witch, or do you want to genuinely practice the Craft of the Wise? The next move is yours...
Friday, August 26, 2016
But before Samhain, there will be Fall. While most of use will be in the mindset that Fall is the end, many Pagan folk believe it's a beginning-our version of New Year according to the ancient Celtic calendar. It's true the leaves will soon be turning color and dying (actually, they have already begun to turn here), a parallel to the mythic story of the Dying God. Either the year ends with a spectacular blaze of orange, yellow and red glory, or it begins with one...depending on your personal belief. Some traditions celebrate Pagan New Year on October 31 and some at Yule (December 21); others wait to celebrate with the rest of the world and have a Happy New Year on January 1, when Janus looks back at the old year and forward into the new. Personally, it doesn't matter- as long as I get a nice, long period of cool nights, morning frost and a million colored leaves.
For me, Autumn is the time to make a clean sweep with a new broom-literally and figuratively. I start cleaning a few days prior to the Equinox because that's when I begin to put out the seasonal decorations. I wash windows, clean the cobwebs out of the unseen corners, and give all the floors a good solid scrubbing. There are some cleaning agents I am particularly fond of, but for magickal purposes I use either white vinegar or Florida Water. Both clear out negative vibrations. I follow that by smudging my whole living area with white sage, being sure to get the smoke into all the little nooks and crevices by gently fanning it with a feather or blowing. Afterward I move all the furniture back into place and tidy up. Clutter blocks energy by trapping it. Cleaning and de-cluttering opens up the energy of a space.
At this time of year I try to have a few folks over for a quiet Harvest celebration consisting of finger foods and mulled wine or cider. Of course apple and pumpkin based recipes are traditional, but anything fruity or earthy will do. I love making a spread for nut bread out of creamed cheese and dates; simply blend the two together, adding a little white wine or apple juice if it's too thick. A bit of nutmeg, and it's ready to spread. I especially like to make apple cake for this kind of evening event, it's wholesome and expresses the Autumn theme ( I add black walnuts and a little rum glaze to mine).
The celebration itself is more of a gratitude circle than a harvest festival: in a cast circle we give thanks for friendship and each other and share light refreshments. We talks about our lives, and about all the new people in them....and we aren't afraid to laugh and tell stories about those who have gone across the Veil before us. In fact, we call them in as a part of the circle casting, leaving a gate for them to enter and leave at will. Sometimes we sing, or use this time as an introduction to a potluck dinner. We keep the lights low after we close the circle, drink more wine, and talk about our plans for the rest of the year. It's truly a celebration of friendship.
Because Autumn is an ending and a beginning, I try to purge my life of things that no longer serve me, especially material items I've outgrown and bad memories. I take in that which is new and different and makes me happy and incorporate it into my everyday. If this includes new items, they can be blessed and/or dedicated. I like to bless and anoint new altar tools at this time. In these days- because when I am alone I stretch this celebration out as long as I can-I do card readings for myself,skry and use my pendulum as a presage of what is to come. I write out what I get from these mediums and analyze it into what my Jungian training calls, " The best story", that is, what is the most positive outcome. This is also a good time to cast runes or bones.
I love to collect dew from the morning frost because it's a natural form of water; I use it to wash my house crystals. Afterward I take them to my personal altar and dedicate them to their specific work for the season ( I do this after every sabbat, but you can dedicate them for the year or however long you like). I also collect fallen acorns and oak leaves to decorate and use in later spellcasting. This is the time of year when I find the most feathers when out for walks in the woods around my home. I also collect seeds and pods ( even if I'm not familiar with them-I identify them later. Be careful of collecting potentially poisonous specimens and wash your hands thoroughly after handling them).
And do burn some wood! There is nothing like the smell of burning wood; pine and hardwoods are my favorite. (Again-know what you're collecting and do not include any woody parts of poisoned ivy or sumac, which can also spread their poisonous properties through smoke.) By burning wood you are combining all of the elements" earth, air, fire and water (even dry woods has some moisture in it contained in any remaining sap deposit that will liquefy in the heat). Remember to be mindful with fire tending and have some way to extinguish the flames on hand such as a bucket of fine earth or water. You may also collect the ashes and find a use for them later ( I am not a wasteful Witch!)
You may even try your hand at creating the physical representation of that 'new broom' by cutting some little twigs and binding them to a small branch with inexpensive twine. I have use the bush parts of marigold plants; the broom is temporary and can be burned in a larger fire at Samhain. Use your imagination!
Posted by Ameth Jera at 4:46 PM
Sunday, August 21, 2016
|image via internet search|
The phrase sweetness and light is often used to describe an irony or something saccharine and superficial. The Victorian poet Matthew Arnold used it to describe beauty and intelligence in the broader Greek sense of classical culture in reference to the effect and benefits of positivism in society and self.
In a more magical, occult sense it means favorable outcome and wisdom associated with a situation or influencing another person to have those qualities in regard to your relationship to them. A common way to achieve this is by the use of a honey jar (aka a sweetening jar) to "sweeten" the circumstances. This comes from the Hoodoo Tradition, a form of folk magic. The following instructions are for a very basic jar and a simple way to use it. I encourage you to personalize the spell for your own use and specific situation.
Use a clean jar with a tight fitting lid ( so the sweetening agent won't leak out or draw insects). Some practitioners use locally sourced honey because they believe it is more potent than store bought, but to be quite honest, as with all magick, I personally believe that that the outcome depends more on your intention than the tools. While honey is the traditional medium, golden syrup, maple syrup, corn syrup- in short, any type of syrup-can and has been used as well as brown sugar or regular table sugar. The sweetening agent is a matter of personal preference and what you have available to you. The same goes for the candle you will place on top of the jar to 'heat' it: white candles work just fine, but if you'd like to use a candle in a color corresponding to your intention, that's fine, too.( Dress the candle appropriately before using it, or simply hold it in your hands and dedicate it to the task at hand) Fill the jar with the sweetening agent part of the way and add any corresponding herbs you choose to raise the vibration of the tool. Instead of adding these things to the jar, you may wish to place them beneath the jar if using a photo or paper, and draw a ring around the jar with the herbs. In some cases you may want to also add a photograph, or a slip of paper with the subject's name written out in full. Do the best you can to narrow the focus of the intention in as few words as possible. When you have placed any additional objects in the jar, fill it up and attach the lid tightly. Shake the jar three times while reciting an incantation or prayer suitable to your need ( one you have composed will most certainly be more effective, in my opinion, because you have imbued it with your personal power and vibration). The wording need only describe your need or desire, but some practitioners like to write their wording to rhyme because they believe that rhyming is more magically effective. After shaking the jar, place the prepared candle on top to activate it, light the candle, and meditate on your target. As always, be sure to place your jar and candle in a safe place away from potential fire hazards, have plenty of clearance around it, and never leave it unattended when the candle is lit. Use the jar once a day, repeating your need-but don't be needy. The point is to petition but not beg. While deities and spirits do respond to desperate situations, they don't respect groveling and whining!
Sweetening jars are used to "sweeten" a situation, to make a person nicer to you ( such as that nasty boss or teacher) or situation ( a court case, that test you're dreading, or to get a new job).
Another way to 'sweeten' your life is to simply change the energy around you. What is required from you is a combination of mind and magick. First the mind: let go of as much negative thinking as you can through self examination and meditation. Why do you feel the way you do? What is influencing your thinking? Once you have the reason narrowed down you can take steps to deal with it more effectively. It may require a change of attitude on your part, meaning you refocus your thoughts in a more positive manner. You can still be annoyed, angry or afraid of something, but you cannot think things through if your thoughts are not focused. Write things down to help sort them out, so you can see the situation more clearly. Keeping writing and condensing until you have it down to it's basic elements and thoughts are concrete. Then write out what you have in a statement, further condensing if necessary to keep it sharp. When you feel you are ready, take a ritual bath using Epsom salts (Substitute: sea salt ) to draw the negative vibration from your energy field, then rinse off. Follow by a second a soak in a tub of water containing a bit of Florida Water, or lavender or rose. If using the herbs, steep them into a tea before hand and use the tea only in the bath. A quarter cup of tea should do it; if you're using essential oil, use only a few drops. ( Beware of allergic reactions and test anything you bathe in before hand to be sure you won't have a reaction to it. If you develop redness or a rash or other symptoms, don't use the herbals or solution. Commercially purchased Florida Water is usually in cologne form and is safe for most people to use, just don't over do it.) Allow the bath water to dry on your skin. You may wish to do this several days in a row until you feel better.
A third way to 'sweeten' to improve or change a situation is to dedicate a basic quartz crystal to the work needed and place it on your personal altar or carry it with you. Cleanse a crystal by any means you like, hold it in your hands and "tell" it your need. If you think that's simple, it is. Sometimes simple is best. We don't a lot of tools-remember that words have a power all their own. The crystal does have a particular energy that can be programmed, and it's a great reminder, but it's your heartful, thoughtful words that are the true magick.
Friday, August 5, 2016
I wish I could say that I'm sorry to be leaving the little mountain town I've called home for nearly four years, but the fact is that with the infrastructure crumbling as quickly as it is (and the townsfolk being in denial of this), it's no longer a desirable or viable place to live. If I miss anything about it, it will be the countryside; I've learned a lot, first hand, about Appalachian folkways, and particularly about the magic and rootwork of the area. The place I'm thinking of moving to will be a little farther North, to West Virginia...I'll still be living in the mountains, but in an urban area (as far west as I have ever permanently lived) in a town with considerably more and better infrastructure- and a better attitude. I have been here long enough to know that everything that goes with living in the South will still prevail, but it will be tempered by liberal thinking and reason, due mainly to the diversity of population.
Life right now is certainly Zen-light and dark. I've seen both sides dramatically illustrated most recently, and happily, I am able to move between them with little discomfort, although I'm still trying to figure out the details of moving at a time when I am mentally but not financially ready. I can totally freak out and say things are falling apart, but to be honest, I think it's more like they're falling into place, so that keeps panic in check. And...I'm still a witch. Nothing has changed that, other than right now I have had to pull a little more from Universal energy than I normally do.
But with renewed vigor, I am ready to reclaim my power. Using the gifts of magick, I'm putting together a spell for the best outcome. Magickal needs often have roots in the mundane, so I have a lot to consider- finances, housing, moral support; finding a way to get my belongings, my cat and myself to the new location. And then...life afterwards. I don't like the process of moving or being uprooted. I know some of that comes from the fact that I am a creature of habit-I like my routine. I don't like change, even though I am resigned to the inevitability of it. I like being in control of things as much as possible.
I've put a lot of consideration into this situation, and just to check myself ( because we all have doubts) I've discussed it with quite a few people over the last few months...all of whom have weighed the facts, and whom have come to the same conclusion I have: It will be difficult, but it will be for the best. It will be hard, but the pros outweigh the cons, and now...it is necessary. So much for being in control. Beyond the advise of mortals, I've sought the counsel of my patron deities and Ancestors. They too have presented similar answers...it must be. And so, I shall.
Sigh...They say that Life is an adventure. To quote Bear Grylls,Author and Host of the BBC TV series Man vs. Wild :" To me, adventure has always been the connections and bounds you create with people when you're there. And you can have that anywhere."
My part in this, as far as I can tell, is to be up to the challenge and keep the fire burning. I am as good at tending fires as putting them out ( being a devotee of Brigid, A Scouter, and an EMT/firefighter has come in handy, it seems!) So as I gather the proverbial wood with which to build my new home, I'm making a lot of offerings and prayers, too. If nothing else, I have learned over the course of my years to be persistent. And I am a stalwart believer in the promise and love of the Immanent Divine.Meanwhile, I'm going through everything in the apartment, decluttering,packing up what I want and need while I continue to apartment hunt. wish me luck. It's never easy to move.
Posted by Ameth Jera at 12:37 PM
Saturday, July 30, 2016
Barley is a member of the grass family and one of the first grains cultivated in the world. It is grown in temperate climates globally and is one of the most popular grains fermented in the process of making distilled alcohol. It is also particularly good as a cooked breakfast cereal, or cooked and combined with fruits for a side dish. Barley flour is popular in Scotland; it's lighter in weight than wheat flour ( but darker in color, which is why most barley-based malts used in ale are dark).It is also used to make a roasted cafe drink similar to coffee, and for animal feed. The magickal correspondences of barley include protection: sprinkle barley in your windowsills to keep evil and negativity out. It can also be used as a perimeter barrier as a substitution for salt. Barley water is the base for several tried and true protection washes for both the individual and home. Libations made from distilled barley are and appropriate offering to the Norse god Frey, and to most Sun gods.
Wheat is ground and used not only for flour, but as a cereal as well. It is full of fiber and popularly consumed as bread-heavy, dense wheat bread is wonderful hot from the oven! It is used magically for protection and prosperity and is a conduit for psychic energy and all spiritual needs. Add ground wheat ( or coarse flour) to spirit bags to call up the energy of the Earth.
Corn has a long history not only as a food, but as a spiritual tool. Cornmeal, sprinkled on the heal of an individual, is used to open the Third Eye and as a dedication to the Corn Maiden of The First Nations. As masa, it can be used to thicken soups and stews, and to bless the food at the same time. A few kernels of corn can be carried in your pocket to curb negativity, or to raise your own personal vibration ( the difference is in the intention). Corn is also used in healing ceremonies. It is a plant sacred to most Native Peoples. Sprinkle cornmeal or add it to mojo bags for prosperity.
All grains are linked to prosperity and fertility (sexual and otherwise). when you use food as magick, always cook with the intention clearly in mind throughout the preparation. Imbue the food with your own personal energy as you cook it, and it will be that much more powerful toward reaching your goal. Remember to stir clockwise to 'build up' the positive and counter-clockwise to decrease or banish.
Bread, cakes and cookies are all particularly popular in pagan culture at the First Harvest. You might like to try the following recipe. I use them as ritual cakes, but they're a good, quick snack for a hike, too.
Scottish Style Oat Cakes
2 C Oatmeal
1 C flour
1/2 tsp salt
1/2 C vegetable oil or butter
1/4 tsp baking soda
1/2 brown sugar
1/4 C boiling water
- Preheat oven to 400 degrees and line baking sheet with waxed or parchment paper.
- Dissolve baking soda in boiling water (add a little more water if needed).
- Combine dry ingredients with butter, then add dissolved baking soda.
- Mold dough into a ball, then press it out onto a baking sheet. You can roll it out with a rolling pin to make it thin as you want it to be about ¼ inch thick.
- Cover and chill for 10-15 minutes to firm up the dough, then remove and score down the middle and across to make 8-10 squares (you'll use these lines for clean cuts after it's done baking).
- Bake for 12-15 minutes until they are golden brown. They should be crisp and crunchy, not chewy.
- Separate the cakes along the score lines with a thin knife and allow them to cool.