This post originally appeared in the Pagan Blog Project 2014, Week J
The teachings of Dr. Carl Gustav Jung ( pronounced "young") are one of my passions. So much so that when I finally decided to pick a psychological discipline with which to align myself while I was working on my counseling degree, I chose Jungian Psychology.
My first exposure to Jungian thought was through a self-help group sponsored by the Center+Point Foundation. We met as a coterie weekly to apply Jung's theory of self-integration and growth potential to areas of our lives. It was the 70's,what can I say? All my friends were going to est, and I certainly couldn't afford to spend that much money on developing my psyche at the time. ( Later I did got to both est I and II, but to be honest, Center+Point was the better investment, in my opinion. It's certainly the one that's benefited me the most in the long run. It's been over 35 years now, and all I can remember taking away from est was that they controlled when you got to go to the bathroom, the bastards.)
C.G.Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist, a friend and contemporary of Sigmund Freud. They shared a lively friendship, mostly through correspondence. That ended after many years when Freud asked Jung to give him his opinion on a particular dream he'd had. I take it the explanation Jung came up with was less than flattering to Freud's rather largely inflated opinion of himself; to make matters worse, it was later discovered that Freud withheld details of the dream that he thought would usurp his authority in the psychiatric community. Jung had deduced correctly what those details were and he and Freud parted company acrimoniously- but not before Freud publicly accused Jung of casting "death wishes" upon him during another encounter where he fainted ( Which I suspect was due more to Freud's own hysteria than to any malefica from Jung.) [ Freud A-Z,pg 103 by Susan Heller,2005 ;published by John Wiley&Sons,Inc.] The suggestion so affected Jung that he plunged into a depression during which he had vividly lucid dreams about death. During this period, Jung became intensely interested in all things death-related, so much so that it influenced the writing of his Seven Sermons to the Dead (using the pseudonym of Basilides). He described the dead as "...the voices of the Unanswered, Unresolved,and the Unredeemed."[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_Sermons_to_the_Dead ]
But wait a minute...weren't these two supposedly learned men of science? They were indeed, but I wonder if Freud's knowledge of Jung's numerous encounters with the mystical that began in his childhood (he'd experienced psychokinesis,precognition and clairvoyance at a very early age), hadn't lodged its self in a dusty corner of his mind, only to prey on the psychiatrist's own fear of the occult.
Both Jung's mother Emile and grandmother Augusta were known psychic mediums. It would follow that Carl would have a natural curiosity and a better understanding of this subject than most of his contemporaries, wouldn't it? As it turns out, it not only was, but when Jung learned that his 16 year old cousin was also a medium, he enlisted her assistance in helping with paranormal experiments that became the framework for his doctoral thesis," On the Psychology and Pathology if So-called Occult Phenomena", published in 1902. Four years later he published one of his most significant works,The Psychology of Dementia Preacox [https://archive.org/details/psychologyofdeme00junguoft]After that, he received several impressive honorary degrees in succession from universities in his home country and Harvard,Oxford and Clark University in Massachusetts. He'd also been appointed as the President of the International Congress of Psycho-Analysis (1910), but resigned from that and an esteemed professorship at the University of Zurich. Desiring to distance himself from the mainstream, he began an almost obsessive preoccupation with mythology and dream work. [ The Portable Jung,edited by Joseph Campbell, published by Penguin Books,1976]
He began to work on the development of his general theories on psychological types and archetypes in earnest. Out of this period came his definitions of introvert and extrovert and the four basic functions of thinking, feeling,sensation and intuition; the collective unconscious, and anima (feminine) and animus (masculine) principles.
Jung's theories were powered by insight into the workings of his own psyche. He closely examined his dreams and applied his own unique understanding of spirituality to interpretation of religious symbols. He was a student of both Eastern (Taoism,Hinduism) and Western religions (Christianity and Gnosticism), and his spiritual leaning were best described as eclectic. He believed in occult phenomena and the paranormal because he'd experienced it first hand. As the line of demarcation between his dreams and visions began to blur, he penned the enormously popular and autobiographical Memories,Dreams and Reflections,which he continued to work on until his death on June 6,1961.
In 1944, Jung had had an out-of-body experience (OBE) after a heart attack where he saw himself high above the Earth, where he saw a temple made of stone. He felt called to go inside this temple to learn the meaning of life. But before he could do so, he was called back by an apparition of his attending physician, who'd taken the form of the Heal of the Temple of Asclepius (the Greek god of healing) who commanded him to return to Earth because he work was not done. Jung's near-death experience was confirmed by a nurse who witnessed him being surrounded in a white light.
After the death of his wife in the 1950's, he retired to Bollingen, Switzerland and began to build what amounted to being a castle on the property he owned. Into the stone walls he had mystical and alchemical symbols carved. During the building of this castle he updated many of his published works on the mandala, synchronicity and the I Ching. These re-workings became his opus, Aion [.http://www.amazon.com/Aion-Researches-Phenomenology-Collected-Works/dp/069101826X]
Jung was an ardent believer in reincarnation; much of his feeling on the subject came from the Tibetan Book of the Dead. He was quoted saying that his existence was based on " ...a passionate drive for understanding in order to piece together mythic conceptions from the slender hints of the unknowable."
[Harper's Encyclopedia of Mystical and Paranormal Experience,Rosemary Ellen Guiley, 1994] Like many of us today, he feared for the future of humankind and stated emphatically that our saving grace would be our becoming mindfully more conscious as a species.
Just prior to his death, Carl Jung had a dream in which he became whole ( a reoccurring subject in his writings about personal integration). I believe this meant that his individuation had become complete and he had reached the pinnacle of human growth. In this dream, he was himself symbolized as a tree whose roots were interlaced with gold-the metal associated with completeness in alchemy. On the night he died, a particularly violent storm arose on Lake Geneva in which lightning struck his favorite tree. Coincidence? Synchronicity? Stranger things have happened in this world.
Carl Gustav Jung left a legacy of thought that is applicable to all forms of occult and academic traditions; little wonder so many Pagans gravitate to this great mystic of our time.
Monday, May 19, 2014
Wednesday, May 7, 2014
|19th century children's graves in Frederick, Maryland|
No one likes to think about making final arrangements for themselves or a loved one who has died. It's not an unpleasant task, and it is necessary...and if you don't do it yourself or at least put in your own two cents, someone else will make the decision of how your physical body will be disposed of, and quite possibly what transpires during your funeral/memorial service. Do you want that to happen? No? Then read on for a deeper discussion...
Nowadays the majority of people die in a hospital or hospice setting. In 2010 The National Center for Health Statistics gathered stats from a sampling of U.S. hospitals and determined that 29% of all deaths took place in a hospital.[http://www.cbsnews.com/news/drop-in-hospital-death-rates-may-mean-more-americans-dying-at-home/] Other reports by the National Institute of Health determined that 23-27 percent of recorded deaths happened at home, while deaths in nursing homes stayed at 21%. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1282180/]
Just a century ago our families tended to the dead at home. Why has this changed? Culture, for one reason: our lives are industrial vs agrarian and much different than that of our ancestors,e.g., travel modes (auto accidents, etc.) And there is the fact that humans are dying much older than before (often after a lengthy decline). Modern healthcare has dramatically changed toward the use of technology. We have moved death out of the home and into institutional settings.
Death is inevitable, despite our best efforts. Death is merely a transition in the natural cycle of life. In most US states, it is perfectly legal for a family to handle the funeral and disposal of the body themselves as long as all the necessary certificates have been filed. There are rules which apply to this, but it can be done.[http://www.npr.org/programs/death/971208.death.html] Others are opting for a "green", more natural manner of burial; green cemeteries are gaining popularity across the country. "Green" burial is primarily direct burial within 24-48 hrs. into the ground, with the body clad only in a shroud,or in a biodegradable container. You may have to call the cemetery yourself because this is not yet a popular option in the funeral industry. But what do you do if you aren't prepared to handle the funeral or burial yourself? You will probably seek out a funeral home to take over the task.( Let me interject here that if you are a member of a coven or other group this is a splendid time to discuss the subject of funerals, because as a general rule, not many groups have experience in this area. Getting someone trained to assist members in this area, as a part of a Community or Pastoral Care Committee,would be a true service to your group.)
The larger question is how do you deal with a funeral home if you are Pagan? The truth is that most of these establishments deal largely with Christianity when the funeral is of a religious nature (Jews have a tendency to use a Jewish funeral director because there are strict religious laws governing interment.) It is also true that more and more funeral directors are serving those who are humanists, atheists or those of no specific faith; the majority of funeral directors will work with anyone and don't care about your religious preference or lack there of. Because few funeral directors are familiar with Pagan practice, you will need to express your needs and requirements to him/her fully, in writing. If you are a member of a group, it would be wise to ask your clergy/high priest(ess), or other member to accompany you when you initially meet with the funeral director.
At the initial meeting you will discuss the arrangements to be made concerning the disposal of your loved ones body. While there are many options widely available, the services normally provided by a funeral home primarily focus on two: cremation and burial. Whatever you decide, the Federal Trade Commission mandates that you receive an itemized price list of goods and services provided by the funeral home/funeral director[http://www.consumer.ftc.gov/articles/0070-shopping-funeral-services] and [http://funeralethics.org/rights.htm]. Ask what is specifically included in 'package deals', or things such as 'preparation of the body'.(Embalming is rarely required by law. Special situations do exist, however[http://www.funerals.org/frequently-asked-questions/48-what-you-should-know-about-embalming]. >Do not be ashamed to ask for the least expensive coffin or the bare necessities if you cannot afford what you are shown; nearly all funeral directors can provide a simple,economical alternative to the traditional casket. < (My own grandmother was buried in a simple casket made of pressboard which was lined in white 'satin' and covered in blue damask-like fabric,which was actually very attractive.) If you have concerns in any of the above areas, please be sure to read the next link provided which is a general guide to funeral home ethics and standards: https://www.funerals.org/forconsumersmenu/your-legal-rights/was-the-funeral-home-ethical
Also for that initial meeting you will want to bring along basic information about your loved one: full name, any other name under which the individual was know (nick name, magickal name, or title);date of birth; the name of his/her hometown and the town in which s/he currently lived; and age at death. You will also need to supply the names of parents and possibly grandparents; and siblings; and of course a spouse,partner or significant other, and children's names.(Some obits also include the name of a beloved pet or familiar.) If the decedent was a member of a group such as a temple or coven,and it is agreeable to the members, the name of the group may be included (e.g., The Temple of the Moonlight Rose).You may wish to include the names of schools,certificates or degrees awarded or earned; fraternal organizations, etc. A sentence or two about the decedent's favorite activities could be added as well,(e.g. "Jane was an avid knitter and loved making scarves for her friends","Amber studied herbs and made her own incense"). It is not necessary to mention the decedent's faith tradition or spiritual practices, but if you do, this is not the time to be snarky about any former religious affiliation (e.g., including a phrase such as "Jane became a Witch after being rejected by the Baptist Church" is not appropriate and just plain spiteful). However, if you'd like, something like, " Jane was a devotee of the goddess Diana for over thirty years" would be perfectly fine, as long as it is included without fanfare. The funeral director you choose will be able to assist you with the wording/editing of any obituary you may wish to place in the local newspaper. Remember, you may be paying by the word, letter or space, so keep it concise.If you would like to include a picture,take a clear black and white photo to accompany the obituary. ( Note: a death notice is automatically sent to local newspapers. It will include the decedent's name, date of death,place where s/he died, and who is handling the funeral arrangements.) The date and time for any funeral or memorial service will be included, too.The obituary may or may not include the name of the clergy or individual officiating at the funeral or memorial service, if there is one. Otherwise the closing statement of the obituary will be a statement of which funeral home is handling the arrangements.
If you are having any sort of religious ceremony for the decedent, and if you have not done so previously, a member of the clergy should be contacted ASAP. That means your High Priest/ess or Elders, or an ordained member of the mainstream church. This is where things may get a little awkward, particularly if the person is not Pagan or at least Pagan-friendly. If a member of the mainstream Christian clergy is asked to officiate, it is more likely than not that minister will expect to deliver a Christian-themed service complete with readings from the Bible and music from a hymnal approved by their denominational authority.This is to be expected because this is the normal way things are handled in mainstream religions, so don't be offended. You may come upon resistance to anything remotely Pagan being included in the funeral, either from the officiating clergy...or the decedent's family ( if you are a spouse or partner.) On the other hand, you may be delightfully surprised. More and more interfaith ministers,
especially from the Unitarian Universalist Association, are not only accepting of alternative religions, they have experience dealing with the special situations that can occur in planning and execution of such.[http://www.patheos.com/blogs/pantheon/2010/10/the-last-great-initiation/] And here's reality: Expect to pay this individual for his/her time. Even if it's small an honorarium. It is only right they be compensated for their time and effort, unless there are other arrangements made or they do it from the goodness of their heart.
If you are solely responsible for the planning of your loved ones last rites, you-and you alone-have the final say as to what takes place prior to and at the disposal of the body. Whom you consult to aid you in planning the funeral/memorial/graveside/scattering of cremains-in the funeral home or at another location-is your prerogative. How you plan the service-what components you wish to have-is also up to you. There are guidelines, but no hard and fast rules. A simple guideline is as follows:
- Background music while attendees are assembling. If there is to be a formal processional, there may also be music for this purpose.
- Opening words of welcome. ( May be from the Funeral Director, Officiant,or a family member)
- Thoughts on life and death. (Usually a brief homily or talk by the Officiant)
- Tribute (memories(eulogies) written and spoken by family, friends or the Officiant)
- Music for Reflection (or silent reflection)
- Prayers,readings,etc.( Readers selected from friends and family members,or by the Officiant,who have gone over the material well in advance.Don't just spring this on someone.)
- Closing words or benediction.( Funeral Director,Officiant or a family member)
- Music while the Officiant exits,followed by those assembled.
Using a traditional funeral form, those assembled then follow the hearse carrying the body and the Officiant in procession to the cemetery or place where cremains will be scattered. You man not desire to follow this form and have a private interment, or scatter the cremains on another occasion ( or privately). Many times there is a reception following the committal. This may be a catered or potluck affair at a location hired for the purpose, provided by a fraternal organization or religious group to which the decedent belonged(e.g,a volunteer fire department or a coven), or the home of a friend of the family. At the very least, especially for those who have traveled to attend the rite, a beverage or other type of hospitality should be offered.
A few words of warning on scattering cremains: it is not just 'ash' in the bag, there will be some bone fragments and some may be large enough to be identifiable as such. You will be getting 5-9 lbs.cremains, depending on the individual's size. Get permission from the property owner,or a permit from local authorities where required...and please,please,please stand up-wind when you pour the contents of the container out. I'm not trying to be funny here. Check the direction of the wind before you pour and preserve everyone's dignity.This is by no means intended as an exhaustive examination of the subject of Pagan funerals, it is just a place to jump on, just an overview...there is so much more beyond the scope of this post. I hope it's been helpful.There are many resources available to help with planning a funeral or memorial service; I have found that the Unitarian Universalist Association and the Humanist Movement is a rich supply in particular.One of my favorite go-to books is Illuminata, by Marianne Williamson, because the language in which the prayers and meditations are written, is modern, while the intention and feeling of them are very old. I have included some valuable links from the Internet, and there are many more online. Be aware that some of the following resources do not originate in the US; they are provided here for reference:
Outlines for Rites or Services:
And finally...This lovely funeral service by Dr. She DMontford: